紫禁城海报剧照

紫禁城更新至03集

紫禁城

  • 内详 
  • 吴志勇 

  • 纪录片 记录 

    中国大陆 

    汉语普通话 

  • 60

    2021 

@《紫禁城》相关问题

紫禁城?

历史发展紫禁城自明初永乐四年(1406年)始建,明清两代不断改建、添建,尤其是明代嘉靖时期的改制和清代乾隆年间的改建,使紫禁城最终形成今日之建筑规模。紫禁城的建筑集中国古代宫殿建筑之大成,从中可领略到中华五千年建筑文化的丰厚积淀。明代营建北京的四个时期--明成祖朱棣于永乐四年(1406年)诏建北京皇宫,此后营建工程一直陆续不断地进行,直至明朝末年。除一般维修外,以工程量计算,大体可以分为四个时期。一、永乐开创时期。这一时期,结合都城营建,将元大都故城整体向南推移,并完成了北京城墙的修建,从而确定了宫城的位置和规模。由于紫禁城是吸取明初凤阳、南京两地宫殿营建的经验而施工的,其布局更为完整。宫城南北分为前朝后寝,中轴线贯穿南北,左右对称,三路纵列,东西六宫环列,呈众星拱月之势,基本按《周礼》等传统文献中的王城规制进行规划。现存的故宫基本保持了永乐时期奠定的这一平面格局。二、正统完成时期。这一时期包括正统、景泰、天顺三朝,是明代开国以后初步稳定和兴盛的时期,国家的财力、物力相对充裕,相继完成了北京各大坛庙和御苑的营建,紫禁城三大殿的重建和两宫的修缮也是这一时期的主要工程。朱祁镇登基后,第一件大政就是修建紫禁城,从正统元年(1436年)开始,到正统十年(1446年)完成。三、嘉靖扩建时期。明朝此时日渐昌盛,商业资本主义有所发展,北京前三门外逐渐形成繁华的商业区。嘉靖二十三年(1544年)加筑南部外罗城以资防卫。这一时期的重点工程仍首推紫禁城三大殿的工程。此朝火灾最多,嘉靖三十六年(1557年)的大火竟导致“三殿十五门俱灾”,不得不陆续重建,至嘉靖四十一年(1562年)才重新建成。其间因重建万寿宫致使三大殿工程一度停滞。四、明末衰落时期。万历至明末,衰亡迹象日益明显,政府已无力进行大规模的兴建。万历朝三大殿又发生火灾,但此次搁置18年方重建,且工程历时12年,持续到天启年间才修缮完毕。名字由来紫禁城其名称系借喻紫微星坛而来。中国古代天文学家曾把天上的恒星分为三垣、二十八宿和其他星座。三垣包括太微垣、紫微垣和天市垣。紫微垣在三垣中央。中国古代天文学说,根据对太空天体的长期观察,认为紫微星垣居于中天,位置永恒不变,因此成了代表天帝的星座。是天帝所居。因而,把天帝所居的天宫谓之紫宫,有“紫微正中”之说。而【禁】,则更为人理解,意指皇宫乃是皇家重地,闲杂人等不得来此。封建皇帝自称是天帝的儿子,自认为是真龙天子;而他们所居住的皇宫,被比喻为天上的紫宫。他们更希望自己身居紫宫,可以施政以德,四方归化,八面来朝,达到江山永固,以维护长期统治的目的。明清两代的皇帝,出于维护他们自己的权威和尊严以及考虑自身的安全,所修建的皇宫,既富丽堂皇,又森严壁垒。这座城池,不仅宫殿重重,楼阁栉比,并围以10米多高的城墙和52米宽的护城河,而且哨岗林立,戒备森严。平民百姓不用说观赏一下楼台殿阁,就是靠近一些,也是绝对不允许的。明王朝的皇帝及其眷属居住的皇宫,除了为他们服务的宫女、太监、侍卫之外,只有被召见的官员以及被特许的人员才能进入,这里是外人不能逾越雷池一步的地方。因此,明代的皇宫,既喻为紫宫,又是禁地,故旧称“紫禁城”。



紫禁城的英文简介

This is the palace museum; also know as the Purple Forbidden City. It is the largest and most well reserved imperial residence in China today. Beijing Forbidden City is the head of the world's top five palaces. The Forbidden City was built begin in 1406 and it took 14 years to built it. The first ruler who actually lived here was Ming Emperor Zhudi. The distance From North to south is 961 meters, and 753 meters from east to west. And the area of about 725,000 square meters. The Imperial Palace has 8704 rooms. In 1987 the Forbidden City was recognized a world cultural legacy. 这是故宫博物院,也被称为紫禁城。它是北京现在最大、保存最完好的宫殿。北京故宫是世界五大宫殿之首。紫禁城建于1906年,历时14年建造完成。第一个明朝统治者朱棣便住在这里。故宫南北长961米,东西宽753米,建地面积725,000平方米。宫殿共有8704个房间。在1987年紫禁城成为世界文化遗产。 Forbidden City building Classified as "outside in" and "inner court" two parts. 太和palace中和palace and保和palace are the center of the outside in, Where the emperor would hold meeting and exercise of power. 乾清palace、交泰palace、坤宁palace are center of Inner court . Feudal emperors and princess lived here. 故宫的建筑分为“外朝”与“内廷”两大部分. 外朝以太和殿、中和殿、保和殿三大殿为中心,是皇帝举行朝会和行使权力的地方。内廷以乾清宫、交泰殿、坤宁宫后三宫为中心是封建帝王与后妃居住之所。The red and yellow used on the palace walls and roofs are symbolic. Red represents happiness, good fortune and wealth. Yellow is the color of the earth on the Loess Plateau, the original home of the Chinese people. Yellow became an imperial color during the Tang dynasty, when only members of the royal family were allowed to wear it and use it in their architecture. Dragon, lion and other animals are a symbol of good fortune and dignity. The pine trees and cypress trees and the pavilions make people feel beautiful and quiet. 红色和黄色作为宫殿墙壁主色调是一种象征。红色代表快乐、好运气、和财富。黄色是中国人的起源地黄土高原大地的颜色。在唐朝黄色成为了代表帝王的颜色,仅有少数人可以穿它,并且也将黄色用于建筑。龙凤、狮子等动物象征这吉祥和威严。这些松树,柏树,还有小亭子给人以幽美恬静的感觉。The Forbidden City had three large-scale maintenance. The first time was in 1949 when New China has founded. This maintenance fundamentally changed the old society, and show a magnificent scale. The second time is in 1973, people has protected the palace professional.The third time is since 2002, continued in 2020, the palace is re-repiring, and "Open areas" will increase from the current 30% to 70%. 紫禁城总共进行了三次大规模的维修。第一次是在1949年新中国成立的时候。这次维修从根本上改变了宫殿的旧社会形态,展现了宏伟壮观的规模。 第二次是在1973年,人们对它进行了更多专业的保护。 第三次从2002年将一直持续到2020年。将使宫殿的开放区从30%增加到 70%。There are four entrances into the city. The Meridian Gate to the south, the Shenwu Gate (Gate of Military Prowess) to the north, the Donghua to the east, and the Xihua Gate to the west.故宫有四个大门,南门为午门,北门为神武门,东门为东华门,西门为西华门。午门:the shape of the gate is the most high-level form. Wumen gate where the emperor ordered the expedition, and few people can walk through this gate. 午门的形状是最高级别的形式。午门是皇帝下令出征的地方,仅有很少一部分人可以通过这个门。神武门:Shenwumen is a daily access gate. Now this gate is the main entrance. 神武门是日常出入的门。现在是故宫的正门。Inside the 太和gate, there are太和palace、中和palace、and保和palace. These three palace are the maintain architecture of the palace museum. Their height of different shapes, and different roof forms, these seem rich and diverse. 位于太和门内, 是太和殿、中和殿、保和殿,这是故宫的三大主要建筑,它们高矮造型不同,屋顶形式也不同,显得丰富多样。太和殿:This is the most grandeur. And this temple area is the largest one of various in Forbidden City. This temple is the place where the emperor held a major ceremony, like the emperor ascended the throne, birthdays, weddings, New Year's Day.太和殿是最富丽堂皇的建筑,建地面积是紫禁城中宫殿最大的。太和殿是皇帝举行重大典礼的地方,比如:皇帝即位、生日、婚礼、元旦等。中和殿:zhonghedian is located the back of the taihe temple. Where the emperor to take a break before the ceremony and do a pre-exercise。 中和殿在太和殿的后面,是皇帝去太和殿举行大典前稍事休息和演习礼仪的地方。 保和殿:Baohe temple is a place where the annual New Year's Eve kings and emperors entertain the other kings and is also the place where examinations held and successful candidates. 保和殿是每年除夕皇帝赐宴的场所。保和殿也是科举考试举行殿试的地方。 御花园:There are many pine trees and cypress trees, besides some other precious trees, some rockery, and pavilions. The 万春 pavilion and 千秋pavilion are the preservation of the most beautiful and ancient-style.御花园里面栽种了很多松柏,和一些珍贵的树种,还有一些假山和小亭子。其中万春亭和千秋亭是目前保存的古亭中最为华丽的。乾清宫:Palace of Heavenly Purity in the Forbidden City in top court. There is a throne in the middle of the temple. There are "aboveboard" plaque, two sides of the this court are the places where emperor reading and sleeping. The south of the court is a room that the son of emperor can reading and studying.乾清宫在在故宫内庭最前面,殿的正中有宝座,内有“正大光明”匾。乾清宫的两头是皇帝读书、就寝之地。厅的南面是皇子读书学习的地方。坤宁宫:kunning gong in the last surface of the Forbidden City in chambers. Kunning Gong is the Queen's chambers in the Ming Dynasty. And then it turns to be a ritual place.坤宁宫坤宁宫在故宫“内庭”最后面,坤宁宫是明朝皇后寝宫,清代改为祭神场所。交泰殿:This temple in the Palace of Heavenly Purity and between Kunning Gong. The temple is the Queen's Birthday Celebration birthday activities.交泰殿在乾清宫和坤宁宫之间该殿是皇后生日举办寿庆活动的地方。东西六宫:There are 6 temples in the east and west. Ming and Qing imperial concubines used to live.东西六宫是明清时期嫔妃居住的地方